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Studies providing evidence supporting Astrology

Can Astrology be proved or disproved? 

Many sceptics insist on 'irrefutable scientific proof' before they can entertain the possibility of a connection between the celestial and the terrestrial. Some Astrologers believe that no part of astrology can be tested under the scientific method.  As will become evident both these positions are more about protecting their belief systems than investigative science.


Some researchers believe that astrology can be proved or disproved with a single dramatic study.  While in mathematics, you can deduce a proof to show that a proposition is always true, proof is more demanding in the natural sciences. Science works by the accumulation of empirical evidence to build up a theory. With each replication, the theory becomes more persuasive and established, but since new evidence can show a claim to be false or that it requires modification at any time, it remains a theory or hypothesis and can never become an eternal proof or a universal law.


A Growing Body of Evidence
Over the past fifty years, scientists and astrological researchers are discovering a growing body of objective evidence of correlations between celestial positions and terrestrial life. These statistically significant results have been published in peer reviewed journals (including Correlation, a specialist astrological journal).  Ironically, some of the strongest evidence has come from experiments backed by sceptical groups including CSICOP.

Blind Tests  |  Gauquelin  |  Harm & Self-Harm  |  Nature  |  Finance  |  Medicine   | CharacterVarious
Blind Tests

Blind Tests

  • Vernon Clark's Blind Tests (1959-1970)

Between 1959 and 1970, US psychologist Vernon Clark performed a series of blind matching tests involving a total of 50 professional astrologers. While a control group of 20 psychologists and social workers matched 10 pairs of charts with professions to a level of 50% as expected by chance, the astrologers successfully matched 65%. (Clark 1961) Though this result may not sound significant, the odds of this being a chance event is 1 in one in ten thousand. (p=0.0001) In a later study, Clark removed any possible cues from self-attribution from knowing sun sign traits, by using matched pairs with the same sun sign. The astrologers matched charts to case histories 72% of the time. An even more significant result. (p=.00001) In the final experiment, 59% astrologers were able to distinguish between an individual with a high IQ and one with cerebral palsy. Even this lower result was significant (p=.002) Overall out of 700 judgements the astrologers matched correctly 64% of the time. (p=0.00000000000005 or 5 in 10 trillion). (Clark 1970) 

  • U-Turn in Carlson's Double-Blind Astrology Test (2009 & 2011)

    While Carlson in his famous study published in Nature claimed astrology was no better than chance (Carlson 1985), Professor Eysenck (London University) and other reviewers found that Carlson's original sceptical conclusion was not supported by the evidence. Professor Ertel's (Göttingen University, Germany) re-analysis of the data compiled shows that astrologers were able to rate authentic psychological profiles significantly higher than unauthentic profiles in a blind test to a statistically significant level (p=0.037). (Ertel 2009) (Currey 2011)

Carlson Test Results
Michel Gauquelin
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Gauquelin Effects

  • French psychologist and statistician, Michel Gauquelin (1955-1991)

Supported by his wife Francois, Michel Gauquelin conducted the most famous research into astrology. Though he was interested in astrology, he did not consider himself an astrologer and dismissed much of it including zodiac signs. His tests focused on the correlation between the positions of the planets at an individual's birth, his or her psychological nature and how this manifested in measurable ways such as choice of profession or independent biographical descriptions. 


  • Gauquelin's Data

Gauquelin collected data from over 20,000 professional celebrities from various European countries and the United States. Gauquelin's research detected statistically abnormal diurnal positions of the planet Mars at birth in athletes, Jupiter in actors, Saturn in scientists and the Moon in writers. His tests confirmed an ancient claim of astrologers that planets posited around the four angles are stronger and the characteristics associated with the planet manifests prominently in the individual. 

  • Gauquelin's tests attracted much controversy.

    Gauquelin allowed independent sceptical researchers to scrutinise his original data. Three committees of rationalist scientists Belgian (LERRCP), American (CSICOP), and French (CFEPP), reviewed and independently replicated Gauquelin's results. CSICOP published their results in The Humanist. The Belgian group refused to publish their study for eight years, in the vain hope of finding a logical explanation for their positive result. The French took a full 14 years. In the end the group dissolved and the work was completed by Jan Willem Nienhuys from the Netherlands. All groups made their data available, but the CFEPP was the only one to publish the full data. The book outlining the study (The "Mars Effect", A French Test of Over 1,000 Sports Champions) [Review].(Gauquelin 1988) (Ertel 1988) (Müller 1990) (Ertel 1990) (Ertel 1992) (Müller 1992)(Ertel 1993) 

  • 'The Tenacious Mars Effect' (1996)

    by Professor Suitbert Ertel and Kenneth Irving (Urania Trust) "describes the Gauquelin's pioneering work and analyses in detail the attempts by sceptic committees in Belgium, the USA and France to disprove their results. The book highlights the often dubious methods by which hostile sceptics have sought to discredit the Gauquelin's uncomfortable findings and shows that, in fact, much of the evidence is even stronger than previously claimed." (Ertel & Irving 1997) (Ertel & Irving 2000)

  • Gauquelin & Eysenck (1979-1981)
    • An empirical study of personality and the position of the planets at birth. (Gauquelin 1979)  

      The birth data and personality descriptions of several thousand famous French scientists, sportsmen, and actors were obtained from biographies. The rising and culminating positions of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were calculated and the personality measured according to Hans Eysenck's scales. It was predicted and found that introverts are very significantly more frequently born when Saturn had just risen or just passed its upper culmination; extraverts when Mars and Jupiter had just risen, or just passed their upper culminations. 

    • Eysenck's personality analysis and position of the planets at birth: A replication on American subjects(Gauquelin 1981) 

      Personality descriptions of 500 successful American professionals were compiled from their biographies and birth data collected. The precise positions of the planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn at birth correlated with H. J. Eysenck's (1967) personality dimensions. Extraverts were significantly more frequently born when Mars and Jupiter had just risen or just passed their upper culmination; introverts when Saturn had just risen or had just passed their upper culmination.​

  • Professor Müller's Studies (1986)

A study by Arno Müller, Professor of Psychology at the University of Saarland, Germany of the lives of 1,145 German nobility over five centuries where records were kept meticulously, showed a significantly higher frequency in infant mortality within the first 15 months (p=0.0004) of birth when Saturn was rising or culminating (Gauquelin sectors) at birth. (Müller & Menzer 1993) [This fits with a traditional interpretation of Saturn rising as difficulties early on in life.] This study might be applied to help understand the mysteries of present day cot-death syndrome.

  • Timm & Koberl: Re-analysis of study by Bender (1986)

 A re-analysis of a by Hans Bender study in 1952-55 on 178 German Astrologers showed that astrologers were able to match descriptions of 3 people to 3 natal charts to a significant level. (p=0.026). (Timm & Koberl 1986) However, researchers could not rule out the results being attributed to ESP.

Harm & Self-Harm

Studies in Harm & Self Harm

  • New York Suicide Test Press (1977)

    Not all valid astrology tests have demonstrated evidence for astrology, but astrologers have been willing to publish these results. Nona Press and two other astrologers gathered 311 records of birth data of subjects who committed suicide in New York between 1969-73 who were also born in the five boroughs of New York City. Despite statistical comparison with a multitude of astrological conventional and unconventional techniques such as asteroids and minor aspects, they were unable to find significant results that related to suicide. However, their results (Press 1977) were duly published in an Astrological Journal. Some astrologers have argued that there may not be an astrological signature for suicide (since this is not part of normal astrological practice) or that astrology is divination and cannot be objectively demonstrated by empirical studies.(Cornelius 2003)

  • Sara Ridgley: Astrologically Predictable Patterns In Work Related Injuries. (1993)

    In her PhD. study of 1023 workers in California who were disabled for at least 3 months as a result of accidents at work between 1987-1991, Dr Ridgley found a correlation (p<0.00000001) between the Sun position at birth in a 'hard' aspect (0º, 90°, 180º) to the transiting Sun and the frequency of accidents. (Ridgley 1993)  This study was replication of data from 55 subjects from C.E.O. Carter's book The Astrology of Accidents (1932) which resulted in a high significance (p<0.00016) for such a small sample. However, a study by Dobyns and Pottenger (1996-1999) were unable to replicate the results using critical work related accidents to 2,865 workers in Sweden in 1993. 

  • Jan Ruis: The Birth Charts of Male Serial Killers: Evidence of Astrological Effects? (2012)

    In response to criticism of Dr Ruis' initial study 293 serial killers published in 2008, the researcher was able to demonstrate convincingly that the deviation of the test group from the control is highly significant both by Zodiac Signs (p=.0002) and by Placidus Houses/Gauquelin sectors (p<.005). There was a particular emphasis on mutable signs and the '12th principle'. Also, the Moon was significantly conjunct and opposite the MC (p=0.03). (Ruis 2012) 


Personality Traits in Horoscopes

  • Clarke: Sun & Moon in Positive Signs & Extraversion (E) (1996)

In 1978 Mayo, White and Eysenck (Mayo 1978) published a test (N=2324) that appeared to show that positive (odd numbered) sun signs were significantly more extraverted [E+] than negative signs [E-] and that water signs were higher on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Neuroticism [N] scale. These stark results have since been accounted for by self-attribution (Eysenck 1982) - these participants were highly predisposed to astrology (as former students and clients) and may have defined themselves using prior knowledge of their Sun Sign or perhaps subject to self-selection. 


Two decades later, the Journal of Psychology published a more objective study involving 190 students mostly born in the southern hemisphere (Clarke 1996). The subjects had no special interest in astrology and were given no clues that the test involved astrology. After completing the EPI Form B, they were asked to supply their birth details. While those with the Sun or with the Moon in positive signs had a higher mean E score than those in negative signs. In this part of the test, this difference was not significant possibly due to small sample sizes. However, 36 subjects with both the Sun and the Moon in positive signs had a significantly higher mean E score (M=16.56 SD=2.66) than 36 with the luminaries in negative signs (M=14.89 SD=3.66) (p < .05)  

  • Robert Currey: Extraversion & Neuroticism in birth charts (2017)

Do extreme scores for Extraversion [E] and Neuroticism [N] in a psychological personality test show up in a birth chart?  Attempts to find a neat fit between the elements in the horoscopes of 288 subjects and psychological types by Dr Geoffrey Dean (1985, 1986) failed to find a match.  When a revised analysis of the keywords in Eysenck's Personality Index was applied to this data by Currey a statistically significant (p=.008) correlation was found between personality as outlined by the test and the astrological elements in the natal charts. (Currey 2017)​

  • Robert Currey: Justice for the Supreme Court
    Delving beyond a Sun Sign Test of 113 Justices


In his book, A Scheme of Heaven (2020), Alexander Boxer tested a traditional claim that Libra, a sign associated with the law should be disproportionately high among 114 justices of the US Supreme Court (SCOTUS) appointed since 1789. However, Boxer’s calculations showed no correlation with any Sun Signs and the frequency of Libra was below the average. 

Here, we review the connection between the sign of Libra and the planet Jupiter (traditionally associated with judges) in the birth charts of 114 Supreme Court justices. The natal technique of mutual reception is used as a research tool to identify this key theme. This is the combination’s two ruling planets (Venus and Jupiter) in each other’s ruling signs (Libra and Sagittarius) and the conjunctions between Venus and Jupiter. Using conventional orbs, the frequency of this Libra/Jupiter theme in the birth charts of the justices is significant (p =.001). (Currey 2021)

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Various Experiments

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  • Judith Hill: Redheads and Mars Rising (1996)

    In a 1988 study of 500 redheads a remarkably significant (27.2%) were born within 30° of the Ascendant (p=<0.000001) and a low 9.8% <30° of the Descendant (p=<0.000035) when compared with control groups. A follow-up replication in 1996 of 479 American and Canadian and 473 British redheads (N=952) showed significance (p=0.007 and p=0.015) for Mars rising when compared with two control groups. (Hill 1988) (Hill 1996) 

  • Didier Castille: La Population Française au Rythme du Zodiaque (1999)

    Stats for birth distribution in France. Tests on the Sun Signs (6.7% signs are estimated as all times of birth were unknown) and large populations (6.4m & 10m) in France show significant sign correspondence between marital partners (12/12 significant v 1/12 in the control), between Birth Sign with Sign position on Death Date (9/12 significant v 0/12 in the control) but rejected the null hypothesis for a correspondence between birth and death on the same day of the week (i.e. no significance found in the non-astrological test). Castille poses the similarity of these results suggests the possibility of an artefact, but to date none has been discovered.

  • Bernadette Brady: The Australian Parent-Child Research Project (2002)

    Dr Brady (currently with the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David) demonstrates a series of significant correlations between the natal horoscopes of parents and their children. Most notable correlations involved the Moon, the first-born child and the angles. (Brady 2002

  • Kyosti Tarvainen (2011-2014)

    Finnish researcher and mathematician, Dr Kyosti Tarvainen published a series of studies from research into the massive on-line database containing the Gauquelins' meticulous birth records (n>23,000). Tarvainen discovered that while single astrological factors show positive correlations, they are often not statistically significant. This finding is in line with Gauquelin. However, when the factors are synthesised as is the practice of astrologers, the results become significant. An example is Mercury, Gemini and the third house are significant in the charts of Journalists (p=.03) (Tarvainen 2012) Tarvainen's studies also found that certain astrological techniques could not be verified, and other techniques such as synastry produced significant results. (Tarvainen 2011) (Tarvainen 2012a) He later tested out 316 planetary interpretations that were claimed to apply to 11 professions published in a popular astrological text book (known as a 'cook book'). Though Tarvainen found that a minority were not accurate a significant number of traditional claims were supported when tested against 18,000 subjects versus controls. (Overall significance p=.001) (Tarvainen 2012b) In 2013, he investigated the prominence of 25 textbook significators in the charts of 2,759 mathematicians and found significant correlations. (p=.001) (Tarvainen 2013). In studying 20,892 families, Tarvainen also found a correlation between a wider marital age gap in the charts of husbands with Venus/Saturn natal aspects (74 days p=.002) and a delay to marriage where both partners have Venus/Saturn aspects. (Men 92 days p=.008 and women 62 days p=.04) (Tarvainen 2014) 

  • Sun Signs & Celebrity (2013)

    Favored Zodiac for Celebrity Births (2013) Adel, Hussain and Johnson. Journal of Social Sciences. Currently this has been criticised by Genovese (2014) and rebutted by Hamilton (2015). 
    Astrology as a culturally transmitted heuristic scheme for understanding seasonality effects: a response to Genovese (2014)(2015) Mark A. Hamilton Comprehensive Psychology: Volume 4, Issue 1.

  • Chemical reactions & seasonal cycle (1962)

    Professor Piccardi from the University of Florence and a team of scientists conducted experiments for some 20 years that showed that an inorganic chemical reaction (bismuth oxychloride slowing dissolving in water) dissolved fastest each year in the spring and the slowest in the fall, exhibiting a sinusoidal reaction rate throughout the year.  (Piccardi 1962)

  • Trenoweth: Adolescent behaviour & Moon phase (2016)

    Alex Trenoweth, a teacher, studied 7,944 reported incidents of bad behaviour by pupils (aged 11 to 18 years old) recorded by teachers at a Secondary School in East London in the 2012-2013 academic year. She found that the frequency of discipline cases at the New Moon was 16% higher than the Full Moon (p <.001). Trenoweth speculated that as pupils and teachers had tended to sleep better during the New Moon (Röösli et al 2006), (Cajochen 2013) than at the Full Moon, the slight increase in sleep gave both teachers and pupils more energy. This energy or the Sun/Moon combination may have enhanced the confidence of students to commit the offence and the decisiveness and resolve of teachers to enforce it. (Trenoweth 2016)

  • Roberts: NFL Head Coaches & Planetary signs (2018)

Courtney Roberts  demonstrated that championship winning Americn Football (NFL) head coaches (n = 54) have a high frequency of the Sun, Mars and Jupiter in Tropical Earth Signs and correspondingly low frequency in Air Signs with a reverse outcome for coaches (n = 168) who have never won a championship (p = .0007). This result is consistent throughout the sample beyond the Sun sign.  While Earth qualities are good for management, reliability and a hands-on practical approach, they may be even more appropriate in a territorial sport where gaining ground is an objective.  



  • Suzel Fuzeau-Braesch & Jean-Baptiste Denis (2007)

    In an empirical study of 500 pedigree dogs in the Paris region, significant correlations were found in seven angular planets and anthropomorphic traits including two highly significant ones: Jupiter with extraversion and sociability (p<.000001) and the Sun with strong personality. (p=0.00002) (Fuzeau-Braesch 2007)  

  • Wildlife & the Lunar Node Cycle (2014)

    Zeitgeber (from German for "time giver") is any external (exogenous) cue that entrains the internal (endogenous) time keeping system of organisms. It is any feature of the external environment that provides clues as to the passage of time, for example the passage of the sun, moon and stars. (Archibald 2014


  • Animal Behaviour & Moon Phase (2000)

Do Animals Bite More During A Full Moon? Retrospective Observational Analysis  (Bhattacharjee 2000)

  • Over 100 studies on the correlation of animal behaviour and moon phase.

    List of over 100 studies published in scientific journals that confirm the correlation of animal (including primates) behaviour and the lunar cycle. Activities include reproduction, communication, foraging and predation. (Animals & Lunar Phase) 


Financial Astrology

  • Pelc: Moon Trading (2010)

A study by Pelc and Bondar (2010), analysts at RBS show among other results that by "moon trading", £ 1,000 in 1928 invested in S&P 500 would be worth £ 1,502,689 in 2010 compared to £ 63,894 if they had tracked the index. (Pelc 2010)

This paper investigates the relation between lunar phases and stock market returns of 48 countries over 32 years (402 lunar months). The findings indicate that stock returns are lower on the days around a full moon than on the days around a new moon. This result is statistically significant on both a 7 day window (6.9%) and on a 15 day window 5.4% (p=.0009). The magnitude of the return difference is 3% to 5% per annum based on analyses of two global portfolios: one equal-weighted and the other value-weighted. The return difference is not due to changes in stock market volatility or trading volumes. The data show that the lunar effect is not explained away by announcements of macroeconomic indicators, nor is it driven by major global shocks. Moreover, the lunar effect is independent of other calendar-related anomalies such as the January effect, the day-of-week effect, the calendar month effect, and the holiday effect (including lunar holidays). (Yuan 2006)

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Medicine & Astrology

  • Moon Phase & Bleeding (2004)

The influence of the full moon on the number of admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding  (Roman 2004)

  • Astrology & Fertility Treatment (2005)

    Dr Pat Harris tested the hypothesis that transits of Venus and Jupiter to planets in a woman’s birth chart correlate with periods when she is most likely to bear children in two studies. In a group of 27 women (N = 114 treatments), astrology and more than 30 other variables, such as fertility history, were measured in a logistic regression model. Only four factors including astrology correlated significantly with the outcome in the first test. These four factors were tested in a replication study (N = 40 women 55 treatments) and only astrology was significant (10% p = .056). The conclusion is that women with a known time of birth can increase their likelihood of success in fertility treatment from 9% to 23% and those unsure of their time of birth from 10% to 17%. (Harris 2005

  • Imprinting of the biological clock at birth (2011)

    Using real-time gene expression imaging and behavioural analysis, the research team found that the perinatal photo-period has lasting effects on the circadian rhythms expressed by clock neurons as well as on mouse behaviour, and sets the responsiveness of the biological clock to subsequent changes in photo-period.  (Adel 2013

  • Christian Cajochen: Evidence that Lunar Cycle Influences Human Sleep (2013)

    Professor Cajochen and his team at Basel University, Switzerland conducted a retrospective study of the data records of the sleep patterns of 33 subjects tested in a darkened room in the lab ten years previously. They found that on a full moon, subjects took 5 minutes longer to fall asleep, had 20 minutes less sleep, spent 30% less time in deep sleep and had diminished melatonin levels. (Cajochen 2013)

  • Della Monica: Effects of lunar phase on sleep in men and women (2015)

    Sleep patterns were compared by sex and age with 3 lunar phases instead of the usual 4. Though they found no significant overall effect, women (n = 114) had reduced rapid eye movement (REM) and stage 4 sleep around the Full Moon and the men (n = 91) had increased REM duration around the Full Moon. These were selected good sleepers rather than poor sleepers who might have been more sensitive to moon phase. (Della Monica 2015

  • Medical recovery & seasonal and lunar cycles (2013)

    The influence of seasons and lunar cycle on hospital outcomes following ascending aortic dissection repair (2013) Shuhaiber et al. Oxford Journals Interactive CardioVascular Thoracic Surgery. (Shuhaiber 2013)

  • Cardiovascular system & Moon Phase (2013)

    76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years) had their resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test measured during four phases of the lunar month (NM, FQ, FM & TQ). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It was posed that that the gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body.  (Chakroborty 2013)

  • Birth Month and Health (2015)

    Scientists at Columbia University Medical Center have developed a computational method to investigate the relationship between birth month and disease risk. The researchers used this algorithm to examine New York City medical databases and found 55 diseases that correlated with the season of birth. Overall, the study indicated people born in May had the lowest disease risk, and those born in October the highest.  (Tatonetti  2015

  • Sunspot Cycle and Giant Cell Arteritis & Rheumatoid Arthritis. (2015)

Evidence of a "highly significant" correlation was found between periodic solar storms and incidences of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA), two potentially debilitating autoimmune diseases. Correlations proved to be strongest between the diseases and geomagnetic activity. GCA incidence - defined as the number of new cases per capita per year in the county - regularly peaked within one year of the most intense geomagnetic activity, while RA incidence fell to a minimum within one year of the least intense activity. Incidences were higher in higher geomagnetic latitudes.  (Wing 2015) 

[Note: Dr Percy Seymour and others have shown a correlation between planetary line-ups and solar storms.]

  • Bipolar mood cycles associated with lunar entrainment of a circadian rhythm. (2018)

In bipolar disorder, episodes of depression and mania are associated with dramatic disturbances in sleep, which experiments show are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of the episodes. A recent finding that 18 patients’ manic-depressive cycles oscillated in synchrony with biweekly surges in amplitude of the moon’s tides provided a clue to the cause of the sleep-disturbances. Analyses of one of the patients’ sleep–wake cycles suggest that his mood cycles arose when a circadian rhythm that normally is entrained to dawn and controls the daily onset of wakefulness became entrained instead to 24.8-h recurrences of every second 12.4-h tidal cycle. The finding provides the basis for a comprehensive description of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the mood cycle. (Wehr 2018)

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Adel 2013
Archibald 2014
Brady 2002
Bhattacharjee 2000
Chakraborty 2013
Cajochen 2013
Clark 1961
Clark 1970
Clarke 1996
Currey 2011
Cornelius 1993
Currey 2017
  1. Adel, Hussain & Johnson. (2013)  Favored Zodiac for Celebrity Births  Journal of Social Sciences. Currently this has been criticised by Genovese (2014) and Genovese has been rebutted by Hamilton (2015). 

  2. Archibald, Herbert L.  (2014) The enigma of the 10-year wildlife population cycle solved? Evidence that the periodicity and regularity of the cycle are driven by a lunar zeitgeber . The Canadian Field-Naturalist Journal. Vol. 128 No.18

  3. Brady, Bernadette (2002) The Australian Parent-Child Research Project Correlation Journal Volume 20 (2) 2002

  4. Bhattacharjee, Bradley, Smith, Scally & Wilson (2000)  Do Animals Bite More During A Full Moon? Retrospective Observational Analysis   BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol. 321, No. 7276 (Dec. 23 - 30, 2000), pp.1559-1561

  5. Chakraborty, U. & Ghosh, T. (2013) A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects (2013)  International Journal of Biometeorology. September 2013, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp.769-774

  6. Cajochen, Christian; Altanay-Ekici, Songuel; Muench, Mirjam; Frey, Sylvia; Knoblauch, Vera; Wirz-Justice, Anna (2013) Evidence that Lunar Cycle Influences Human Sleep. Current Biology, 25 July 2013.

  7. Ciarleglio, Axley, Strauss, Gamble & McMahon (2-11) Perinatal photo-period imprints the circadian clock. Nature Neuroscience Vol. 14, pp.25-27 

  8. Carlson, Shawn (1985) A Double-Blind Test of Astrology. Nature, December 1985 Vol.318, pp.418-425. 

  9. Clark, Vernon (1961). Experimental astrology, In Search, (Winter/Spring) pp. 102-112. The probability is calculated by Dean & Mather (p.546) and is based on weighted scores as the matching by profession test involved ranking rather than yes/no. Sceptical authors have considered the VC tests to be thorough (Dean p.544) and clear-cut (Eysenck p.84). Professor Eysenck did comment that one of the professions was a prostitute and it was possible to assume that she was on the younger end of the 45 to 60 age range! However, this potentially misleading cue was also available to the control group who performed no better than chance. 

  10. Clark, Vernon (1970) An investigation into the validity and reliability of the astrological technique. Aquarian Agent. Autumn.Vol.1 #9 pp.22-23 reprinted. In Recent Advances, Dean calculates that the astrologer's overall accuracy of 64% in 700 possible matches results in p < 10-14 

  11. Clarke, D., Gabriels, T. & Barnes, J. (1996) Astrological Signs as Determinants of Extroversion and Emotionality: An emprical study. The Journal of Psychology #130(2) pp.131-140 Mean scores of E & N were compared for 13 Sun, Moon & Ascendant combinations. Only the Sun/Moon combination was significant (p < .05), but 10 out of 13 were in the right direction. The lack of significance may have been due to the small sample sizes (Mean N=47) ranging from 4 to 149. A fundamental limitation with this type of study is that some of Eysenck's EPI keywords for E- (thoughtful, peaceful and even-tempered) correspond with positive Air signs and yet, many would consider Air Signs to be extravert and N- words like responsive corresponds to water while Water Signs are widely considered by astrologers to be emotional or in Eysenck's terminology, neurotic. 

  12. Cornelius, Geoffrey (1994), The Moment of Astrology, London, Penguin Arkana

  13. Currey, Robert (2011): U-turn in Carlson's Astrology test, Correlation. Vol.27 (2), July 2011

  14. Currey, Robert (2017)  Can Extraversion & Neuroticism, as defined by Eysenck, match the four astrological elements? Correlation Vol.31 (1), May 2017

  15. Currey, Robert (2021) Justice for the Supreme Court: Delving beyond a Sun Sign Test of 113 Justices. Correlation Journal Vol.33.(2)

  16. Della Monica., Cirro, Atzori, Giuseppe & Dijk, Derk‐Jan (2015) Effects of lunar phase on sleep in men and women in Surrey. Journal of Sleep Research, 24 pp.687-694

  17. Dean, G.A. & Mather, Arthur (1977) Recent Advances in Natal Astrology. A Critical Review 1900-1976. Analogic, Subiaco, Australia
    Probability calculations from the Vernon Clark studies are listed on page 546.

  18. Ertel, Suitbert (2009) Appraisal of Shawn Carlson's Renowned Astrology Tests Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol.23, No:2. pp.125-137

  19. Ertel,S. (1988) Raising the Hurdle for the Athletes' Mars Effect Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.2 No:1 pp.53-82

  20. Ertel,S. (1993) Puzzling Eminence Effects Might Make Good Sense Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.7 No:2 pp.145-154

  21. Ertel,S. & Irving,K.(1997) Biased Data Selection in Mars Effect Research Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.11 No:1 pp.1-18

  22. Ertel,S. & Irving,K.(2000) The Mars Effect is genuine Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.14 No:3 pp.421-430

  23. Ertel,S. (1990) Bulky Mars Effect Hard to Hide

  24. Ertel,S. (1992) The Gauquelin Effect Explained? Comments on Müller's Planetary Correlations

  25. Eysenck, H. & Nias, D.K.B. (1982) Astrology, Science or Superstition St Martins Press, London Chapter 4. Sun Signs and Personality pp.49-67

  26. Eysenck, Hans (1986). Critique of "A Double-Blind Test of Astrology", Astro-Psychological Problems, Vol.4 (1), January 1986. Eysenck wrote "The conclusion does not follow from the data". 

  27. Fuzeau-Braesch, Suzel; Denis, Jean-Baptiste (2007) An Empirical Study of Some Astrological Factors in Relation to Dog Behaviour Differences by Statistical Analysis and Compared with Human Characteristics. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 281-293, 2007 
  28. Gauquelin, M.; Gauquelin, F. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1979) Personality and position of the planets at birth: An empirical study British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol:18: pp.71-75. Note though Hans Eysenck had been collaborating with Michel Gauquelin at least from 1977 and was involved in this paper but only his wife Sybil put her name on the paper as co-author. 

  29. Gauquelin, M.; Gauquelin, F. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1981) Eysenck's personality analysis and position of the planets at birth: A replication on American subjects. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 2(4) pp.346-350.

  30. Gauquelin, Michel (1988) Is there a Mars effect? Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.2 No:1 pp.29-51

  31. Hamilton, Mark A.(2015) Astrology as a culturally transmitted heuristic scheme for understanding seasonality effects: a response to Genovese (2014) M Comprehensive Psychology: Volume 4, Issue 1

  32. Harris, Pat (2005) Applications of astrology to health psychology: astrological and psychological factors and fertility treatment outcome [doctoral thesis]. Southampton, UK: University of Southampton. Available through the British Library from July 2009

  33. Hill, Judith & Thompson, Jacalyn (1988) "The Mars-Redhead Link: A Scientific Test of Astrology" NCGR Journal, Winter 88-89.

  34. Hill, Judith (1996) "Redheads and Mars: A Scientific Testimony" The Mountain Astrologer, May 1996, pp 29-40.

  35. McMahon,D., Ciarleglio, C., Gamble, K., Strauss, B. & Axley, J. (2011) Perinatal photoperiod imprints the circadian clockNature Neuroscience Vol.14 pp.25-27 "What is particularly striking about our results is the fact that the imprinting affects both the animal's behavior and the cycling of the neurons in the master biological clock in their brains," said Chris Ciarleglio.

  36. Mayo, J. White, O. and Eysenck, Hans (1978) An empirical study of the relation between astrological factors and personality. Journal of Social Psychology, 105 pp.229-236

  37. Müller, A. (1990) Planetary Influences on Human Behavior: Absurd for a Scientific Explanation? Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 4. No. 1. pp.85-104 

  38. Müller, A. (1992) The Gauquelin Effect Explained? A Rejoinder to Ertel's Critique Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 255-259, 1992 


    Marbell, Neil (1986-87) Profile Self-selection: A Test of Astrological Effect on Human Personality. NCGR Journal, (Winter) pp.29-44.

  40. Müller, A., & Menzer, G. (1993). 1145 Angehörige deutscher Dynastien [1145 members of German dynasties]. Astro-Research Data 4. Waldmohr, A. P. Müller-Verlag. 

  41. Pelc, Tom & Bondar, Dymtro (2010) Sheer Lunacy looking at the Heavens.  Royal Bank of Scotland. Charting Equity.

  42. Piccardi, Giorgio (1962) ​The Chemical Basis of Medical Climatology University of Florence. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, IL.

  43. Press, Nona et al (1977) An Astrological Suicide Study. Journal of Geocosmic Research Vol.2 #2. Also in Recent Advances in Natal Astrology. (Dean 1977)

  44. Roberts, Courtney (2018), Planetary Influence on the Success of NFL Head Coaches, Correlation Vol. 32 (1) pp.7-32

  45. Roman et al (2004)  The influence of the full moon on the number of admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding  pp.164-172. International Journal of Nursing Practice Vol.9.4 

  46. Ruis, Jan (2012) The Birth Charts of Male Serial Killers: Evidence of Astrological Effects. Correlation Vol.28(2) November 2012 pp.8-27

  47. Ridgley, Sara Klein. "Astrologically Predictable Patterns in Work-Related Injuries," Kosmos. XXII[3], 1993, pp.21-30

  48. Shuhaiber et al. (2013) The influence of seasons and lunar cycle on hospital outcomes following ascending aortic dissection repair (2013)  Oxford Journals Interactive CardioVascular Thoracic Surgery.

  49. Tatonetti, N., Boland, M., Shahn, Z., Madigan, D., Hripcsak, G., Birth Month Affects Lifetime Disease Risk: A Phenome-Wide Method. (2015)  Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, Data scientists find connections between birth month and health      

  50. Tarvainen, K., (2011) Classical synastry works on the Gauquelins' data, composite and Davison don't, The Astrological Journal, Volume 53, Number 1, January/February 2011.

  51. Tarvainen, K., (2012) Henning's synthesis method shows validity of astrology in the Gauquelins' data, Correlation 28(1) pp.25-43, 2012. 

  52. Tarvainen, K., (2012a) Ordinary astrology works on the Gauquelins' data, The Astrological Journal, Volume 54, Number 2, March/April 2012. 

  53. Tarvainen, K., (2012b) A test of overall validity of astrological statements in the handbook by Sakoian and Acker, Correlation 28 (1) pp.5-24. While many of Sakoian & Acker's statements proved to be incorrect (such as Moon conjunct the Node for politicians), the more generally known and accepted claims were significantly supported. Examples are Jupiter on the MC was 35% more frequent among politicians, Mercury on MC 35% for writers, Neptune MC 26% for alcoholics, Venus/Neptune conjunction 17% for musicians, Mars conjunct Saturn [17%] and Mars conjunct MC [12%] for Army Professionals/ All percentages are the excess over the control). Overall the 316 statements proved to be more accurate to a moderately high significance. [p=.001.]

  54. Tarvainen, K., (2013) "Favourable astrological factors for mathematicians, Correlation 29(1) pp.39-51. In particular, Tarvainen found a high correlation with Sun/Saturn aspects at the birth of mathematicians. [p=.005 n=2,579]. Article

  55. Tarvainen, K., (2014) Effects of Venus/Saturn aspects in marriages, Correlation 28(2): 7-14. The delay in marriage is based on the date of birth of the assumed first child. This was most evident with the soft Venus/Saturn aspects (Sextiles and Trines). [Editors comment: Does this mean that patience and family planning may be easier when you have 'easy' Venus/Saturn aspects?]

  56. Timm, U. & Köberl, T. (1986). Re-Analyse einer Validitaetsuntersuchung an 178 Astrologen. Zeitschrift fuer Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie , 28(1/2), pp.33-55  

  57. Alex Trenoweth, Alex (2016)  Could adolescent behaviour be influenced by lunar phase? ,  Journal of Research of the American Federation of Astrologers, Tempe, AZ. 

  58. Yuan, Kathy; Zheng, Lu; Zhu, Qiaoqiao (2006) Are Investors Moon struck? - Lunar Phases and Stock Returns Journal of Empirical Finance. 2006, 13(1), pp.1-23

  59. Wehr, Thomas A. (2018) Bipolar mood cycles associated with lunar entrainment of a circadian rhythm. Transl Psychiatry 8, 151 (2018).

  60. Wing, Rider, Johnson, Miller, Matteson, Crowson & Gabriel. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence? BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal) (2015) Vol.5 Issue.5 

Dean 1977
Gauquelin 1979
Gauquelin 1981
Ertel 1988
Ertel 1993
Ertel 1997
Ertel 2000
Ertel 1990
Ertel 1992
Eysenck 1986
Ertel 2009
Harris 2005
Gauquelin 1988
Fuzeau 1986
Fuzeau 2007
Hill 1988
Della Monica 2015
Mayo 1978
Muller 1990
Timm 1986
Muller 1992
Muller 1993
Piccardi 1962
Ruis 2012
Ridgley 1993
Wing 2015
Pelc 2010
Hill 1996
Tarvainen 2011
Tarvainen 2012
Tarvainen 2012a
Yuan 2006
Tarvainen 2012b
Tarvainen 2013
Tarvainen 2014
Tatonetti 2015
Shuhaiber 2013
Roman 2004
Press 1977
Footnote 1


  • ^ At any stage a theory can be disproved. In an attempt to account for Gauquelin's apparently irrefutable statistical results, Geoffrey Dean dreamed up a highly implausible claim that a century ago parents falsified the birth registration times to optimise their offspring's charts! It is hard to see how any parent would want what was considered a malefic planet, Mars in a prominent position. But since a reasonable conventional explanation (artifact) can never be ruled out in the future, Gauquelin's data no matter how solid is no more than an astrological theory. It cannot become proof or a so-called 'scientific law'. 

    Kepler's third law was shown to be incomplete and inaccurate by Newton's laws of gravity which were later shown to be imprecise and incomplete by Einstein's Theories of General and Special Relativity. In the same way, even though the evidence appears overwhelming, it remains Darwin's theory of evolution rather than his law of evolution.

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